The patella is the bone that makes the knee cap. Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a condition in which pain is felt under the kneecap. The femur is the thigh bone. This bone forms the upper part of the knee. In people with patellofemoral pain syndrome, the patella painfully rubs against the femur.
This pain occurs during exercise or movement. It is most common during weight bearing activities such as running. It is often increased by going down stairs or down hills. If you have knee or joint pain during activity, call your doctor.
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There is no single cause for this condition. It can be due to a number of different factors or conditions, including:
The following factors increase your chance of developing patellofemoral pain syndrome:
The first symptom is pain around or under the kneecap. The pain may first occur during high-impact activities. As the condition gets worse, the pain may be triggered by long periods of sitting. It is thought to be caused by the pressure on the kneecap while the leg is flexed. Other symptoms include:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Images may be taken of your knee. This can be done with:
Your doctor may refer you to a specialist. Orthopedic surgeons focus on bone and joint disorders.
The initial step is to rest the knee. High-impact activities should be switched for lower impact exercise. For example, choose swimming instead of running. Your doctor may suggest that you apply ice to the kneecap after activity.
Longer-term treatment involves a number of different strategies, including:
Most people will benefit from strengthening the muscles around the knee. This includes the quadriceps muscles in the thigh as well as other muscles near the hip. Physical therapists can recommend specific exercises. This treatment is very helpful. It can take 6 to 12 weeks to see an improvement.
Some people may benefit from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). They may be helpful in relieving the pain. They work best when combined with other treatments, such as physical therapy.
Many people find relief from knee braces or knee sleeves. These devices typically have a cut-out in the knee cap area. They are designed to hold the kneecap in place during activity. Some are designed to hold the patella from going too far laterally.
Certain methods of taping the patella in position have also been helpful to many patients.
Special shoe inserts, called orthotics, may also be helpful. They work best when the condition is due to dysfunction in the foot, such as flat feet or excessive pronation.
In rare cases, people who do not respond to other forms of treatment may be recommended for surgery. This will be done to correct malalignment of the patella.
It may not be possible to totally prevent this condition. There are steps you can take to reduce your risk and avoid making the condition it worse, including:
American Academy of Family Physicians
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
The President’s Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
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1/24/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Fukuda TY, Rossetto FM, Magalhães E, Bryk FF, Lucareli PR, de Almeida Aparecida Carvalho N. Short-term effects of hip abductors and lateral rotators strengthening in females with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40(11):736-742.
Last reviewed May 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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