Peripheral neuropathy is damage to the peripheral nerves. These are the nerves that connect your spinal cord to the rest of your body.
Peripheral Nerves of the Foot
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Many health conditions can cause peripheral neuropathy. The damage may occur due to:
Health conditions that can damage peripheral nerves include:
Having certain health conditions may increase your chance of getting peripheral neuropathy.
Damage to the peripheral nerves often results in sensory and motor symptoms in the:
Other parts of the body can also be affected. Symptoms depend on which nerves are involved. They can range from mild to severe and may seem worse at night. Sensations and pain may occur in the upper or lower limbs and move toward the trunk, such as from the feet to the calves.
If untreated, peripheral neuropathy can lead to:
If you have motor or sensory neuropathy, you may also have autonomic neuropathy. This is associated with symptoms such as:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. It may include examining:
Additional tests may also include:
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options may include:
Treating the underlying illness can decrease symptoms or make them go away. For instance, if it is caused by diabetes, controlling blood sugar levels may help. In some cases, neuropathy caused by medications or toxins is completely reversed when these substances are stopped or avoided. Correction of vitamin B12 deficiency often improves symptoms.
Certain exercises may help stretch shortened or contracted muscles and increase joint flexibility. In long-standing cases, splinting the joint may be required to protect and rest it, while maintaining proper alignment.
Orthotics, such as supports and braces, may help with:
Maintaining physical activity is also important.
Prescription and over-the-counter pain medications are often used to ease discomfort.
Medications used to treat depression and prevent convulsions can relieve neuropathy symptoms.
For severe and potentially life-threatening cases, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome , treatment includes:
These therapies are aimed at reducing symptoms:
Surgery can relieve the pressure on nerves. For example, surgeons commonly release fibrous bands in the wrist to treat carpal tunnel syndrome .
To help reduce your chance of getting peripheral neuropathy, take these steps:
American Chronic Pain Association
The Neuropathy Association
Canadian Diabetes Association
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Diabetic neuropathies: the nerve damage of diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/neuropathies/index.aspx . Updated June 25, 2012. Accessed July 11, 2013.
Karlsson P, et al. Epidermal nerve fiber length density estimation using global spatial sampling in healthy subjects and neuropathy patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol . 2013 Mar;72(3):186-93.
Peripheral neuropathy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated July 4, 2013. Accessed July 11, 2013.
12/20/2007 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : 2007 safety alerts for drugs, biologics, medical devices, and dietary supplements: Carbamazepine (marketed as Carbatrol, Equetro, Tegretol and generics). Medwatch. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2007/safety07.htm#carbamazepine .
10/5/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Feng Y, Schlösser FJ, Sumpio BE. The Semmes Weinstein monofilament examination as a screening tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. J Vasc Surg . 2009;50:675-682,682.
Last reviewed July 2013 by Rimas Lukas, MD; Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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