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Definition

Gout occurs when uric acid crystals build up in the joints. This causes the joints to be inflamed, causing pain.

Causes

Gout typically occurs if you have high levels of uric acid in your blood. A high level of uric acid in the blood is identified by the term hyperuricemia. However, you could also have normal uric levels and still have gout.

The uric acid can then form crystals in the joints causing the pain and inflammation.

The liver metabolizes uric acid, and the kidneys get rid of it through the urine. Levels of uric acid build up when:

  • Too much uric acid is produced
  • Not enough uric acid is eliminated

If you have gout and hyperuricemia, your body doesn't eliminate enough uric acid.

Risk Factors

Gout is more common in men over the age of 30 years, but gout can occur in men and women at any age. Other factors that may increase your risk of gout include:

  • Obesity , sudden weight gain, or rapid weight loss
  • Family members with history of gout
  • Kidney disease
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • High blood pressure
  • Certain types of cancer
  • Certain medications, such as:
    • Low-dose aspirin
    • Diuretics
    • Cyclosporin, an antirejection drug
    • Chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer

Certain foods and beverages may also increase your chances of gout.

  • Foods high in purines, such as organ meats, shellfish, some vegetables, and gravies
  • High-fructose drinks, such as sugar-sweetened sodas and orange juice
  • Excess alcohol , especially beer
Symptoms
Acute Gout

Symptoms may include:

  • Sudden onset of severe pain in an inflamed joint, usually starting in the big toe
  • Joints that are red, hot, swollen, and tender
  • Increased pain 24-48 hours after the onset of symptoms

Gout of the Big Toe


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Recurrent Gout

Most people with gout have another attack. This attack may affect many different joints. With recurrent gout, tophi can form. Tophi are chalky deposits of uric acid that commonly occur in the elbows and earlobes.

Gout can also lead to other health problems, such as:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A sample of fluid from the affected joint will be taken. This fluid will be tested for uric acid crystals.

Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

  • A sample of fluid taken from the affected joint
  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests

Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:

Treatment

Treatment depends on whether the gout is acute or recurrent.

Acute Gout

In general, the sooner treatment begins for an acute attack, the more effective it is. Treatment depends on:

  • The number of joints affected
  • Previous responses to treatment
  • Overall health
General Measures

Putting an ice pack on the joint may ease the pain. Keeping the weight of clothes or bed covers off the joint can also help.

Medications

Medications may include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Corticosteroids—may be given orally or as an injection into the affected joint
  • Colchicine
Recurrent Gout
General Measures

General measures used to treat recurrent gout include:

  • A low purine diet
  • Alcohol avoidance
  • Gradual weight loss in those who are obese
  • Stopping or changing medications that may be causing recurrent gout
  • Increasing fluid intake
Medications

If you have recurrent gout, or you have kidney stones, tophi, or reduced kidney function, you may be given medications:

  • To lower the production of uric acid
  • To increase the excretion of uric acid by the kidneys
  • To convert uric acid into a different byproduct
Prevention

To help reduce your chance of getting gout:

  • Eat a low-purine diet.
  • Limit how much alcohol you drink. Avoid binge drinking.
  • Drink a lot of fluids.
  • Lose weight gradually.

RESOURCES:

American Arthritis Society
http://www.americanarthritis.org

Arthritis Foundation
http://www.arthritis.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Arthritis Society of Canada
http://www.arthritis.ca

Canadian Arthritis Network
http://www.arthritisnetwork.ca

References:

Gout. American College of Rheumatology website. Available at: http://www.rheumatology.org/Practice/Clinical/Patients/Diseases_And_Conditions/Gout. Updated September 2012. Accessed June 29, 2015.

Gout. Arthritis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/gout/. Accessed June 29, 2015.

Gout. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 21, 2015. Accessed June 29, 2015.

Gout - treatment of acute attack. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 13, 2014. Accessed June 29, 2015.

Gout overview. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/gout.html. Updated July 2013. Accessed June 29, 2015.

Questions and answers about gout. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Gout/default.asp. Updated April 2012. Accessed June 29, 2015.

Rott KT, Agudelo CA. Gout. JAMA. 2003;289:2857-2860.

Terkeltaub RA. Clinical practice. Gout. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1647-1655.

What is gout? National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Gout/gout_ff.pdf. Published November 2014. Accessed June 29, 2015.

1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Man CY, Cheung IT, Cameron PA, Rainer TH. Comparison of oral prednisolone/paracetamol and oral indomethacin/paracetamol combination therapy in the treatment of acute gout-like arthritis: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49:670-677. Epub 2007 Feb 5.

1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Choi HK, Willett W, Curhan G. Fructose-rich beverages and risk of gout in women. JAMA. 2010;304(20):2270-2278.

4/24/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Wise JN, Weissman BN, et al. American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria for chronic foot pain. Available at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/ChronicFootPain.pdf. Updated 2013. Accessed June 29, 2015.



Last reviewed June 2015 by Michael Woods, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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