Failure-to-thrive is when a child is not growing as expected. It does not include children who are small for their age. Definitions of failure-to-thrive may vary.
Children grow quickly in the first few years of life. A child with failure-to-thrive will usually have a height and weight that is well below other children of their age. Your child may have also had a normal growth pattern that began to slow down. Initially, the child has similar height and weight than their peers but at follow-up appointments the child's height and weight does not keep up with their peers.
Growth is assessed at health visits by measuring height, weight, and head circumference. This information is entered into a growth chart, which makes a line or curve that follows how your child grows. Standard curve lines on the chart called percentiles show where babies fall in terms of normal growth compared to other babies at specific ages. Failure-to-thrive can occur when a child:
Failure-to-thrive is split into 3 different types. These types include:
Failure-to-thrive is caused by a lack of nutrition. The most common causes of lack of nutrition include:
Failure-to-thrive is more common in boys. Many factors may contribute to an increased chance of developing failure-to-thrive in children, including:
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
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Family and social factors may include:
Failure-to-thrive may cause:
Failure-to-thrive is diagnosed based on following a child's growth. Your child's weight, height, and head circumference will be plotted on standard growth charts. If the child falls below a certain weight range or crosses 2 lines on the growth chart, the doctor will evaluate the child further.
Based on your child's symptoms, additional tests may be ordered.
Rarely, a child must be hospitalized for a period of time to find the cause of failure-to-thrive. During this time, the doctor will:
This will also be done in an outpatient setting and often require referrals to feeding specialists.
If your child can gain weight under these circumstances and no underlying disease is found, this supports the diagnosis of nonorganic failure-to-thrive.
Treatment will depend on what is causing a child's failure-to-thrive. Options may include:
Treating the underlying medical condition may correct failure-to-thrive.
Children who are malnourished may need a dietary supplement. These may include nutritional drinks, milk fortifiers, and other ways to add calories to food. They help improve nutrition and boost growth.
When a child is hospitalized for diagnosis, the hospital staff can also provide treatment. Nurses can teach parents appropriate feeding techniques. They may also show how to best interact with their child. If the child isn't hospitalized, parents can still have training sessions with a nutritionist or a nurse.
Parents and children who are having difficulty with their relationship may benefit from counseling.
To help reduce your child's chance of developing failure-to-thrive:
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
Public Health Agency of Canada
Failure to thrive. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/growth/failure_thrive.html. Updated November 2014. Accessed September 21, 2017.
Failure to thrive in children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115801/Failure-to-thrive-in-children. Updated February 20, 2017. Accessed September 21, 2017.
Krugman S, Dubowitz H. Failure to thrive. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Sep 1;68(5):879-884.
Needlman, R. Failure to thrive: parental neglect or well-meaning ignorance? Am Fam Physician. 2001;63(9):1867-1869.
8/7/2013 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115801/Failure-to-thrive-in-children: Bocca-Tjeertes IF, van Buuren S, et al. Growth of preterm and full-term children aged 0-4 years: integrating median growth and variability in growth charts. J Pediatr. 2012 Sep;161(3):460-465.
Last reviewed September 2016 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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