Atrial fibrillation is an abnormal heart rhythm. The heart's electrical system normally sends regularly spaced signals. These signals tell the heart muscle to contract or beat.
The heart has two upper chambers called atria. It also has two lower chambers called ventricles. Each signal starts in the atria and travels to the rest of the heart. In atrial fibrillation, the electrical signals from the atria are fast and irregular. The atria shake instead of contract. Some signals do not reach the ventricles and the ventricles continue pumping. This pumping is usually irregular and sometimes rapid. This rhythm can reduce the heart’s ability to pump blood out to the body. Blood left in the heart chambers can form clots. These clots may sometimes break away and travel to the brain. This can cause stroke .
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In most cases, atrial fibrillation is due to an existing heart condition. Atrial fibrillation can also occur in people who do not have structural heart problems. A thyroid disorder or other condition may cause the abnormal rhythm. The cause of atrial fibrillation is sometimes unknown.
Atrial fibrillation is more common in men and in people aged 55 years and older. Other factors that may increase your chance of atrial fibrillation include:
Symptoms can be mild to severe. This depends on your heart function and overall health. Some people may not notice any symptoms.
In those that have them, symptoms may include:
The doctor will:
You doctor will order blood tests to help diagnose the problem.
The goals of treatment are to:
Your doctor may find another condition that is causing atrial fibrillation. This condition may be treated. In some cases, heart rhythm problems return to normal without treatment.
Treatment options include:
Medications may be used to:
Maintaining a healthy weight through diet and exercise may reduce the frequency, duration, and severity of atrial fibrillation episodes.
To help reduce your chance of atrial fibrillation:
American Heart Association
Heart Rhythm Society
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
Heart and Stroke Foundation
Atrial fibrillation. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 17, 2012. Accessed November 9, 2012.
Atrial fibrillation. CardioSmart website. Available at: http://cardiosmart.org/HeartDisease/CTT.aspx?id=222. Accessed November 9, 2012.
Cardioversion. Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/heart/services/cversion. Updated December 28, 2011. Accessed November 9, 2012.
Explore atrial fibrillation. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/af. Updated July 1, 2011. Accessed November 9, 2012.
12/13/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Lubitz SA, Yin X, et al. Association between familial atrial fibrillation and risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation. JAMA. 2010;304(20):2263-2269.
5/11/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Osbak PS, Mourier M, et al. A randomized study of the effects of exercise training on patients with atrial fibrillation. Am Heart J. 2011;162(6):1080-1087.
1/2/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Abed HS, Wittert GA, et al. Effect of weight reduction and cardiometabolic risk factor management on symptom burden and severity in patients with atrial fibrillation: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;310(19):2050-2060.
7/1/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Qureshi WT, O'Neal WT, Khodneva Y, et al. Association between opioid use and atrial fibrillation: The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(6):1058-1060.
Last reviewed December 2014 by Michael J. Fucci, DO
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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