Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder. It is an irrational fear of being trapped in places or situations where escape is difficult. People with agoraphobia may not be able to leave the house.
The exact cause of anxiety disorders is not known. Factors that may contribute to the development of agoraphobia include:
Agoraphobia often develops in people with panic disorders. These disorders are associated with frequent and severe panic attacks. Agoraphobia may develop when people begin to avoid certain places or situations to prevent these panic attacks.
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Agoraphobia is nearly twice as common in women than in men. Other factors that may increase your chance of agoraphobia include:
Feared situations may trigger a panic attack. Attacks start quickly and peak in about 10 minutes. A panic attack usually includes four or more of the following:
Agoraphobia is also commonly associated with the following conditions:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Agoraphobia will be diagnosed by the type and duration of symptoms.
You may be asked questions about your:
There are no tests for agoraphobia or panic disorder. Your doctor may order heart or blood tests done to look for an underlying cause.
Treatment aims to help you overcome irrational fears and live more independently. Goals include:
Treatment of agoraphobia is similar to the treatment of panic disorder. Treatments may include:
Lifestyle changes may include:
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help to change troublesome thought patterns. It will help you learn how you can alter your actions. The combination therapy will help you:
Exposure therapy exposes you to the factor causing the fear while in a safe environment. The sessions often include repeated, detailed imagining of the traumatic experience. The therapy will help people face their fear and gain control of it while it is happening. Exposure therapy methods range anywhere from a gradual approach to the fear to complete confrontation all at once.
Exposure therapy may be done alone or in combination with other treatments.
Your doctor may prescribe medication as well as therapy. Medication options may include:
It is important to take all medications as instructed by the doctor.
American Psychiatric Association
Mental Health America
Canadian Psychiatric Association
Canadian Psychological Association
Agoraphobia. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116901/Agoraphobia. Updated October 17, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2016.
Lenders JW, Eisenhofer G, et al. Phaeochromocytoma. Lancet. 2005;20-26;366:665-675.
Panic disorder & agoraphobia. Anxiety and Depression Association of America website. Available at: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/panic-disorder-agoraphobia. Accessed January 26, 2016.
Phobias. Mental Health America website. Available at: http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/conditions/phobias. Accessed January 26, 2016.
Symptoms. Anxiety and Depression Association of America website. Available at: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/panic-disorder-agoraphobia/symptoms. Accessed January 26, 2016.
What are anxiety disorders? American Psychiatric Association website. Available at: http://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/anxiety-disorders/what-are-anxiety-disorders. Accessed January 26, 2016.
What is posttraumatic stress disorder? American Psychiatric Association website. Available at: http://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/ptsd/what-is-ptsd. Accessed January 26, 2016.
Last reviewed December 2015 by Adrian Preda, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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