Surgeries that were once performed only in a hospital or surgery centers are becoming more common in converted exam rooms and surgical suites in physicians' offices.
Many of these procedures require general anesthesia or IV sedation. Yet, in some states, there are few standards, regulations, or accreditation requirements for surgeries performed in physician offices.
Considering the complexity of some surgery, and the anesthesia used, you may wonder if this trend is a safe one. If you have a doctor who wants to use the office for your next surgery, here is some information to get you started.
Without the same safety regulations as hospital surgery, office-based surgeries could cause serious complications. There have been reports of deaths resulting from the following situations:
Regulation requirements differ among states. Make sure you check them before you have your surgery.
The trend toward office-based surgery is driven by several factors, including:
Hospitals and surgery centers must meet strict state and federal licensing and accreditation guidelines. They also have medical boards that oversee practitioners' qualifications and credentials. On the other hand, inconsistent standards exist for office-based surgery. Some states have addressed the issue of office-based surgery and implemented regulatory requirements while others are relatively unregulated.
There are efforts to standardize surgical safety for office-based procedures. For example, the American Society for Anesthesiologists has created guidelines for office-based anesthesia. Also, the Institute for safety in Office-Based Surgery (ISOBS) created checklists which cover items from the preoperative period through discharge to help keep patients safe.
Once you move from local anesthesia to IV sedation or general anesthesia, the risk for complications such as respiratory distress or heart attack increases. In rare cases, patients can even have a life-threatening reaction to local anesthesia.
Regardless of how minor the surgery, certain patients, particularly those with serious health conditions, such as heart disease, or uncontrolled high blood pressure or diabetes should not have surgery in a physician's office.
Before you have surgery in a doctor's office, the American Society of Anesthesiologists recommends that you ask the following questions:
As a patient, you should to be aware of the risks and benefits of surgery in any setting. If you have any concerns or questions, make sure you talk to your doctor.
American Society of Anesthesiologists
The Joint Commission
Canadian Anesthesiologists Society
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Failey C, Aburto J, de la Portilla HG, Romero JF, Lapuerta L, Barrera A. Office-based outpatient plastic surgery utilizing total intravenous anesthesia. Aesthet Surg J. 2013;33(2):270-274.
Guidelines for office-based anesthesia. American Society of Anesthesiologists website. Available at: http://www.asahq.org/~/media/sites/asahq/files/public/resources/standards-guidelines/guidelines-for-office-based-anesthesia.pdf. Updated 2014. Accessed December 9, 2016.
Horton JB, Reece EM, Broughton G 2nd, Janis JE, Thornton JF, Rohrich RJ. Patient safety in the office-based setting. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;117(4):61e-80e.
Office-based surgery benefits. The Center for Menstrual Disorders and Reproductive Choice website. Available at: http://www.cmdrc.com/about-us/office-based-surgery-benefits. Accessed December 9, 2016.
Outpatient surgery. American Society of Anesthesiologists website. Available at: http://www.asahq.org/whensecondscount/patients%20home/preparing%20for%20surgery/types%20of%20surgery/outpatient%20surgery. Accessed December 9, 2016.
Patient's checklist for office-based procedures. Institute for Safety in Office-Based Surgery website. Available at: http://isobsurgery.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/patient-checklist.jpg. Accessed December 9, 2016.
Safety checklist for office-based surgery. Institute for Safety in Office-Based Surgery website. Available at: http://isobsurgery.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/safety-checklist.jpg. Accessed December 9, 2016.
Surgical safety checklist. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T361101/Surgical-Safety-Checklist. Updated August 1, 2016. Accessed December 9, 2016.
Urman RD, Punwani N, Shapiro, FE. Office-based surgical and medical procedures: education gaps. Ochsner J. 2012;12(4):383-388.
Last reviewed December 2016 by Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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