If you're a woman, chances are good that your car gets a tune-up more often than you do. While many doctors send friendly reminders when it is time for a periodic physical, some of us are on our own to remember when it is time for our next "30,000 mile" tune-up.
It pays to pay attention. All of the tests described below are proactive rather than reactive. Each is designed to catch a developing health problem in its early, more treatable stages. As such, timing is everything, so it is in every woman's best interest to become an informed healthcare consumer. Keep in mind that the timetable suggested for each test applies to healthy women. If you have specific medical concerns, follow the guidance of your doctor.
A mammogram is a screening device that is used to identify a cancerous lump in its early stages. There is controversy about when women who are at low risk for developing breast cancer should start to have periodic mammograms, but many organizations suggest that screening or at least discussion about screening should start at age 40. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), American Cancer Society, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists are some organizations that provide guidelines for breast cancer screening.
If you are interested in getting a mammogram, you should be able to find a certified facility through your doctor. Insurance usually covers the procedure. The National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service (1-800-422-6237) can also provide a list of certified facilities, answer related questions, and make referrals for free or low cost mammograms if you are uninsured or underinsured.
The risk of developing colon cancer increases with age, so it is important to learn the facts about this disease and tests that can help doctors detect it. It is one of the most common types of cancer in women. As is the case with any type of cancer, early detection is the key to survival.
Many organizations have different guidelines for colon cancer screening. In general, a person aged 50 years and older of average risk should do one of the following:
A Pap test is used to identify cervical cancer before symptoms become apparent. As part of the test, cells scraped from the cervix are smeared on a slide and examined under a microscope for any unusual looking cells. Suspect cells identified during this procedure indicate the need for further testing.
A sexually transmitted virus called the human papilloma virus (HPV) can cause changes in cervical cells. In some cases, these changes can lead to cancer. The HPV test , which can be used along with the Pap test, screens women for the HPV virus. The same cervical sample taken for the Pap test can be tested for HPV.
If you are a healthy woman, many professional health organizations offer these recommendations for screening:
Note: You will need to have Pap tests done more often if you have abnormal results or certain conditions, such as:
It is actually the most potent health risk for both men and women in the United States. A lipid profile that includes a measurement of total cholesterol, HDL "good" cholesterol, LDL "bad" cholesterol, and triglycerides is an important part of your preventive healthcare. As with other conditions, organizations vary in their screening guidelines. The USPSTF recommends cholesterol testing in women aged 20 years and older if they are at increased risk of coronary heart disease. And since high blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease, USPSTF also suggests that all women (starting at age 18) get their blood pressure checked as part of routine medical care.
Depending on your age and risk factors, your doctor may also screen you for:
You and your doctor can work together to create a screening schedule that is right for you.
Office on Women's Health
US Department of Health and Human Services
Women's Health Matters
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists practice bulletin number 131: Screening for cervical cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120(5):1222-38.
Can non-small cell lung cancer be found early? American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/LungCancer-Non-SmallCell/DetailedGuide/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-detection. Updated March 4, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Cervical cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 3, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Colorectal cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 11, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 21, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Hypercholesterolemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 16, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Hypertension. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 24, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Mammography for breast cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 14, 2016. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Non-small cell lung cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 25, 2016.
Osteoporosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 13, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Screening for high blood pressure. US Preventive Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf07/hbp/hbprs.htm. Updated July 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Screening for lipid disorders in adults. US Preventive Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspschol.htm. Updated July 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Screening for osteoporisis. US Preventive Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsoste.htm. Updated July 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. US Preventive Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsdiab.htm. Updated July 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
USPSTF recommendations for STI screening. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(6):819.
4/8/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Yee J, Kim DH, et al. Colorectal cancer screening. American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria. Available at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/ColorectalCancerScreening.pdf. Updated 2013. Accessed January 27, 2016
Last reviewed January 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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