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Oophorectomy(Ovariectomy; Salpingo-Oophorectomy; Bilateral Oophorectomy; Oophorectomy, Bilateral)

Pronounced: o-frek-toe-me

Definition

Oophorectomy is the removal of one or both ovaries. This may be combined with removing the fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy). Removal of the ovaries and/or fallopian tubes is often done as part of a complete or total hysterectomy .

The Female Reproductive System

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Reasons for Procedure

An oophorectomy may be done to:

Possible Complications

Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have an oophorectomy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications. These include:

  • Changes in sex drive
  • Hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause if both ovaries are removed
  • Depression and other forms of psychological distress
  • Reaction to anesthesia
  • Bleeding
  • Blood clots, particularly in the veins of the legs
  • Damage to other organs
  • Infection

Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:

Be sure to discuss the risks with your doctor before the surgery.

What to Expect
Prior to Procedure

Your doctor may do the following:

  • Physical exam
  • Blood and urine tests
  • Ultrasound —a test that uses sound waves to examine the inside of the body
  • CT scan —a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the body

Leading up to your procedure:

  • Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure.
  • Eat a light dinner the night before the procedure. After midnight, do not eat or drink anything, including water.
  • Arrange for a ride home and for help at home.
Anesthesia
  • General anesthesia may be used for open or laparoscopic surgery—You will be asleep.
  • Local anesthesia may be used for a laparoscopic procedure—The area will be numbed.
Description of Procedure

There are two different methods:

Abdominal Incision

A cut will be made. It will either be horizontal (side to side) across the pubic hair line, or vertical (up and down) from navel to pubic bone. Horizontal incisions leave less of a scar. Vertical incisions provide a better view inside the abdomen. The abdominal muscles will be pulled apart. The surgeon will be able to see the ovaries. The blood vessels will be tied off. This will help to prevent bleeding. The ovaries, and often the fallopian tubes, will be removed. The cut will be closed with staples or stitches.

Laparoscopic Procedure

The laparoscope is a thin tool with a tiny camera on the end. It will be inserted through a small cut near the navel. This will let the surgeon see the pelvic organs on a video monitor. Other small cuts will be made. Special tools will be inserted through these cuts. The tools will be used to cut and tie off the blood vessels and fallopian tubes. The ovaries will be detached. They will then be removed through a small incision at the top of the vagina. The ovaries may also be cut into smaller sections and removed through the tiny cuts in the abdominal wall. The cuts will be closed with stitches. This will leave small scars.

Immediately After Procedure

You will be moved to a recovery area. The removed organs will be sent to a lab for examination.

How Long Will It Take?

1-4 hours

Will It Hurt?

Anesthesia will block pain during the surgery. You will feel discomfort after your oophorectomy. Women report less pain after a laparoscopic procedure than an abdominal incision procedure. Talk to your doctor about medication to help manage any pain.

Average Hospital Stay
  • Abdominal incision—2-5 days
  • Laparoscopic procedure—1 day

Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if complications arise.

Post-procedure Care
At the Hospital

While you are recovering at the hospital, you may receive the following care:

  • On the first night, you may be instructed to sit up in bed, or walk a short distance.
  • The next morning, the IV will probably be removed if you are eating and drinking well.
  • You may need to wear special socks or boots to help prevent blood clots.
  • You may have a Foley catheter for a short time to help you urinate.
At Home

When you return home, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery:

  • Do not have sexual intercourse until your doctor says it is okay to do so.
  • Some women may experience emotional changes after their ovaries are removed. Counseling and/or a support group may help.

You will stop menstruating if both of your ovaries are removed. You will also not be able to get pregnant. You will still menstruate if one ovary or even just a portion of one ovary remains. You also may be able to get pregnant.

Call Your Doctor

After you leave the hospital, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:

  • Signs of infection, including fever and chills
  • Persistent or increased vaginal bleeding or discharge
  • Pain that you cannot control with the medications you have been given
  • Nausea and/or vomiting that you cannot control with the medications you were given after surgery, or which last for more than two days after discharge from the hospital
  • Redness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or discharge from the incision sites
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Swelling, redness, or pain in your leg
  • Cough, shortness of breath, or chest pain
  • Feeling depressed

If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.

RESOURCES:

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org

National Cancer Institute
http://www.cancer.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.ca

The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
http://www.sogc.org

References:

Endometrial cancer treatment. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/endometrial/Patient/page4#Keypoint14. Updated April 22, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2014.

Ovarian cancer. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq096.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130214T0953249629. Updated July 2014. Accessed October 30, 2014.



Last reviewed October 2014 by Andrea Chisholm, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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