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Indigestion(Dyspepsia; Non-ulcer Dyspepsia; Non-ulcer Stomach Pain)
Definition

Indigestion is discomfort in the upper abdomen or chest. It is often linked to nausea, belching, or bloating.

Locations of Indigestion Symptoms

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Causes

The exact cause is not known. Most often, the condition is linked to a number of unhealthy lifestyle factors. These factors can result in poor digestion.

Risk Factors

The following lifestyle factors increase your chances of indigestion:

  • Overeating
  • Eating too quickly or at irregular intervals
  • Eating greasy, high-fat, or spicy foods
  • Drinking caffeine, alcohol, or soft drinks in excess
  • Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen or naproxen
  • Smoking
  • Psychological stress
Symptoms

Indigestion is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including:

  • Pain or burning sensation in the upper abdomen or chest
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Belching or regurgitation
When Should I Call My Doctor?

It is common to have indigestion occasionally. If the episodes worsen or happen more frequently, make an appointment to see your doctor. If you have indigestion, important reasons to call your doctor include:

  • Having trouble swallowing
  • Vomiting with most episodes
  • Experiencing weight loss
  • Having a family history of cancer
When Should I Call for Medical Help Immediately?

Call for medical help or go to the emergency room right away if you have:

  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Blood in your stool or dark black stool
  • Blood in the vomit
  • Trouble breathing
  • Chest pain
Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. Indigestion is diagnosed mainly on the symptoms listed above.

Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.

Your bodily structures may need to be viewed. This can be done with:

The rate at which the stomach empties may need to be evaluated. This can be done with a gastric emptying study.

Treatment

Your doctor will suggest a plan based on the severity of your symptoms. Treatment options may include the following:

Dietary and Lifestyle Changes

Your doctor may advise you to:

  • Reduce your intake of fatty and spicy foods.
  • Eat smaller meals throughout the day instead of three large meals.
  • Reduce your intake of alcohol, caffeine, and carbonated beverages.
  • If you smoke, quit .
  • Avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and naproxen.
  • If stress is related to your symptoms, find ways to manage stress.
  • Lose weight if you are overweight.
  • Exercise regularly .
Medications

Medications your doctor may recommend include:

  • Antacids—to help neutralize stomach acid
  • Acid suppression agents
  • Prokinetic agents—to help the stomach empty its contents more quickly
  • Antibiotics—to treat a bacterial infection if tests confirm that you have this infection
Prevention

To prevent indigestion:

  • Avoid overeating.
  • Eat slowly and regularly.
  • Avoid greasy, high-fat foods.
  • Limit spicy foods.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Drink coffee, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages in moderation.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Exercise regularly.

RESOURCES:

The American College of Gastroenterology
http://www.acg.gi.org

American Gastroenterological Association
http://www.gastro.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
http://www.cag-acg.org

The College of Family Physicians of Canada
http://www.cfpc.ca

References:

Dyspepsia: treatment. American Academy of Family Physicians' FamilyDoctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/dyspepsia/treatment.html. Updated November 2010. Accessed December 16, 2013.

Karamanolis G, Caenepeel P, Arts J, Tack J. Association of the predominant symptom with clinical characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms in functional dyspepsia. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130:296

Mertz H, Fullerton S, Naliboff B, Mayer EA. Symptoms and visceral perception in severe functional organic dyspepsia. Gut. 1998; 42:814.

Tack J, Talley NJ, Camilleri M, et al. Functional gastroduodenal disorders. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130:466

3/1/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Maalox Total Relief and Maalox liquid products: medication use errors. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm200672.htm. Published February 17, 2010. Accessed December 16, 2013.



Last reviewed December 2013 by Peter Lucas, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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