Otitis, or ear infection, can affect the external, middle or the inner part of the ear. Middle ear infection (otitis media) is a common form of ear infection. The “middle ear” is the air-filled part of the ear that lies just behind the ear drum. Doctors cannot normally see the middle ear, but many middle ear problems will produce changes in the appearance of the ear drum that allow an appropriate diagnosis to be made.
Ear infection can occur suddenly, leading to "acute otitis," or can last longer, as in "chronic otitis." Middle ear infections may occur following a cold or other virus, with nasal allergy symptoms, or they may develop without a known cause. Ear infections are much more common in children than adults. For that reason, most of the information on these pages is geared toward children, although the same recommendations apply to adults as well.
The Middle Ear
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Middle ear infections (otitis media) develop when bacteria or viruses get inside the ear and begin to multiply. These bacteria and viruses often enter the body as respiratory or other infections, such as the common cold or a viral sore throat.
Children are more vulnerable to otitis media than are adults. 2 reasons for this difference in vulnerability are:
Ear infections are the most common infections in babies and young children. It is estimated that 3 out of 4 children under the age of 3 will experience as least 1 ear infection, and half of these children will have 3 or more ear infections by the age of 3. Although ear infections themselves are not contagious, the colds and other infections that frequently lead to ear infection can be passed from person to person.
What are the risk factors for ear infections?
What are the symptoms of ear infections?
How is ear infection diagnosed?
What are the treatments for ear infection?
Are there screening tests for ear infections?
How can I reduce my risk of ear infection?
What questions should I ask my healthcare provider?
Where can I get more information about ear infections?
Acute otitis media (AOM). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116345/Acute-otitis-media-AOM. Updated May 17, 2016. Accessed October 4, 2016.
Ear infections in children. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders website. Available at: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/pages/earinfections.aspx. Published March 2013. Accessed September 21, 2015.
Gates GA. Cost-effectiveness considerations in otitis media treatment. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996;114(4):525-530.
Middle ear infections. Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/ear-nose-throat/Pages/Middle-Ear-Infections.aspx. Updated August 20, 2015. Accessed September 21, 2015.
Last reviewed September 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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