Certain lifestyle changes are part of the treatment plan for ESRD.
To make up for your reduced kidney function, you may need to make changes in your diet. A registered dietitian can help you. The most important nutrients for you to watch are:
Protein —Depending on your kidney function and treatment, you may need to limit or increase protein intake. Because your kidneys are not functioning properly, protein can build up in your blood. Eating less protein decreases strain on your kidneys. However, your body still needs protein. Your doctor will recommend a daily protein level and ask a dietitian to help you plan meals. If you begin hemodialysis or have a transplant , your protein needs will change.
Foods rich in protein include meats, poultry, and fish, as well as eggs, dairy products, soy products, and beans.
Fat and cholesterol —A diet that is high in saturated and trans fat and cholesterol contributes to the formation of plaque in the arteries, which leads to heart disease. Choose a more healthful diet —foods that are low in cholesterol, saturated fat, and trans fat.
Sodium —Sodium contributes to fluid retention. Over the long-term, retaining excess fluid can increase your blood pressure and cause discomfort during dialysis . Try to decrease salt from both foods and fluids.
Potassium —Because your kidneys are not functioning properly, potassium may accumulate in your blood. High levels of potassium in the blood can be dangerous for your heart. Try to decrease the potassium in your diet .
Phosphorus (phosphates) —Because your kidneys are not functioning properly, phosphorus can also accumulate in your blood. Excess amounts of phosphorus interfere with bone metabolism and can weaken your bones. Phosphorus is found in many foods, making it difficult to limit in your diet. Instead, your doctor or dietitian may recommend that you take a phosphate binder, such as calcium carbonate, with your meals. Phosphate binders are included with medications .
Fluids —Excess fluid makes your heart work harder and can raise your blood pressure. Your doctor or dietitian will help you determine how much fluid you can have each day.
Over the counter (OTC) and herbal products may contain substances that can change your blood chemistry and harm your kidneys. Before you take any OTC drugs or dietary supplements, check with your doctor.
If you have diabetes or hypertension, your doctor may order medications to manage them. Always take these medications as directed. Do not stop taking them without consulting with your doctor.
Counseling sessions with a mental health professional can improve your coping strategies for dealing with losses and limitations associated with this disease. Some patients find attending a support group helpful as well.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 22, 2013. Accessed July 2, 2013.
Nutrition and kidney disease, stages 1-4. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/nutrition/Kidney-Disease-Stages-1-4. Accessed July 2, 2013.
What I need to know about kidney failure and how it's treated. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/kidney-disease/kidney-failure-choosing-a-treatment-thats-right-for-you/Pages/ez.aspx. Updated September 15, 2010. Accessed July 2, 2013.
What is kidney failure? National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneyFailure. Accessed July 2, 2013.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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