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Your lifestyle plays an active role in the treatment of kidney stones. By making certain lifestyle changes, you may be able to reduce your risk of developing another kidney stone.

The Kidney


Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

General Guidelines

Drink Plenty of Fluids

One of the goals of kidney stone treatment is to keep your urine as dilute as possible. This helps to keep the substances that could potentially form a kidney stone, such as calcium and oxalate, moving quickly through the urinary tract.

Try to drink at least two liters of fluid a day.

A good gauge of whether or not you are drinking enough fluids is urine color. Except for the first thing in the morning, it should be pale in color. If your urine is dark yellow, that's an indication that you should drink more fluids.

If you are hesitant to drink too much during the day because you have a bladder control problem, discuss this concern with your doctor.

Watch Your Diet

Whether or not diet can help you avoid another kidney stone depends on what kind of stone you had and what caused it to form in the first place. If your stone was made up of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, or uric acid, what you eat or don't eat can help prevent a recurrence.

Note that these are only guidelines. People taking certain kinds of medications will need to avoid certain foods. Always follow the advice of your doctor or registered dietitian in making any diet changes.

Nutrients to consider include:

Calcium Oxalate or Calcium Phosphate Stones

  • Reduce your intake of dietary sodium. Some of these include:
    • Lunch meats and cured meats like ham, sausage, and bacon
    • Salted snacks
    • Prepared salad dressings, mustard, ketchup, soy sauce, and barbecue sauce
    • Pickled foods and olives
    • Canned soup and bouillon
  • Reduce your intake of animal protein. Animal protein includes meat, poultry, fish, and eggs.
  • Maintain proper calcium intake from food or calcium supplements.

If your kidney stones contained calcium oxalate, you may also need to avoid certain plant foods that bind with calcium and other minerals. If your body is not absorbing and using calcium correctly, you could end up with too much oxalate in your urine. You can reduce the level of oxalate in your system by avoiding these foods:

  • Spinach
  • Rhubarb
  • Strawberries
  • Chocolate
  • Wheat bran
  • Nuts
  • Beets
  • Brewed tea

Uric Acid Stones

Limit your intake of animal protein from meat, poultry, fish, and eggs. If you have gout, ask your doctor about other dietary restrictions.

Cystine Stones

Make sure to drink plenty of fluids. This may require more than the two liters recommended for other types of kidney stones. Talk to your doctor about what how much fluid you need.

When to Contact Your Doctor

  • If you have questions about your diet or your medication
  • If you are experiencing any side effects from your medication
  • If you are having difficulty with bladder control as a result of increasing your fluid intake

References:

Diet and kidney stones. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/diet.cfm. Updated September 2011. Accessed April 17, 2013.

Kang DE, Sur RL, Haleblian GE, Fitzsimons NJ, Borawski KM, Preminger GM. Long-term lemonade based dietary manipulation in patients with hypocitraturic nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 2007 Apr;177(4):1358-62.

Kidney stones in adults. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/stonesadults/index.htm. Updated January 28, 2013. Accessed April 17, 2013.

Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 22, 2013. Accessed April 17, 2013.

Siener R. Impact of dietary habits on stone incidence. Urol Res. 2006;34:131-133.



Last reviewed March 2014 by Adrienne Carmack, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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