Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common inflammatory disease that affects connective tissue throughout the body. The most common areas affected are the joints. A joint is the location where bones come together. Several structures work together to allow movement of the joint:
RA is inflammation of the synovium which causes swelling and tenderness in joints. RA symptoms and severity can vary significantly between people. Some may have mild symptoms over a short period of time and some may have more severe forms that lasts many years. RA may also occur in cycles of remission with no symptoms and flare ups where symptoms are more severe.
Over the course of time, inflammation can cause irreversible damage to the cartilage and bone, and weaken nearby tendons which can lead to disability. The earlier RA is detected and treated, the better it can be controlled and damage can be minimized.
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Although less common, RA can also affect connective tissue in other areas of the body including:
RA is an autoimmune disease. The immune system is designed to attack foreign substances in the body, such as viruses or bacteria. With an autoimmune disorder, the immune system mistakenly identifies healthy body tissue as foreign tissue and attacks it. In RA, the joint tissue is attacked. This attack causes irritation and swelling in the synovium and a thickening of the fluid in the joint which causes the hallmark redness, swelling, and stiffness of the joints. Over time, this constant inflammation wears away at the cartilage and bone inside the joint, and makes the nearby tendons weak, making movement painful and difficult.
The exact cause of autoimmune disorders like RA is not known, but is believed to be a combination of:
What are the risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis?
What are the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis?
How is rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed?
What are the treatments for rheumatoid arthritis?
Are there screening tests for rheumatoid arthritis?
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What is it like to live with rheumatoid arthritis?
Where can I get more information about rheumatoid arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/rheumatoid-arthritis. October 29, 2014.
Rheumatoid arthritis. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/musculoskeletal-and-connective-tissue-disorders/joint-disorders/rheumatoid-arthritis-ra. Updated May 2013. Accessed October 29, 2014.
Rheumatoid arthritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Rheumatic_Disease/default.asp. Updated August 2014. Accessed October 29, 2014.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115261/Rheumatoid-arthritis-RA. Updated September 30, 2016. Accessed October 4, 2016.
Wasserman AM. Diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(11):1245-1252.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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