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Definition

Rotavirus is an infection of the stomach and intestines. It is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children.

Rotavirus can easily pass from person to person.

Digestive Tract

Digestive tract

Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

A rotavirus infection is caused by a specifc type of virus.

The virus is passed through the stool of someone with rotavirus. The infected stool can pass the virus to hands, surfaces, objects, food, or water. The virus then enters the body when any of these infected items come in contact with the mouth.

Risk Factors

People with the highest chance of rotavirus include:

  • Infants and young children
  • Children who attend daycare or any public childcare setting
  • Adults who care for young children, especially children who wear diapers
  • Children or adults with household members who have the virus
Symptoms

Symptoms of rotavirus may vary from person to person but may include:

  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Watery diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain

These symptoms can range from mild to severe. They often last about 3 to 8 days.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may be able to diagnose the infection based on your symptoms. A stool sample may be taken. The sample will be examined for the presence of the virus.

Treatment

There is no treatment for rotavirus itself. Viruses do not respond to antibiotics.

Some treatments may be needed for symptoms caused by the infection. For example, dehydration may need to be treated with:

  • Rehydration fluids—such as Pedialyte for children
  • IV fluids—if dehydration is severe

For children, the doctor may advise probiotics. Probiotics may help reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea symptoms.

Prevention

Good hygiene is the best way to help reduce the spread of rotavirus. This includes, taking the following steps:

  • Wash your hands often.
  • If someone in your house has rotavirus, encourage everyone to wash hands more often.
  • Always wash your hands:
    • After using the toilet
    • After changing a baby's diaper or helping a child use the toilet
    • Before handling or preparing food

There is a vaccine to prevent rotavirus in babies. Your baby may need two or three doses between the ages of 2-6 months.

RESOURCES:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov

US Food and Drug Administration
http://www.fda.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

About Kids Health
http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

References:

Rotavirus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/index.html. Updated October 28, 2010. Accessed February 20, 2013.

Rotavirus. American Academy of Pediatrics Healthy Children website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/vaccine-preventable-diseases/Pages/Rotavirus.aspx. Updated January 16, 2012. Accessed February 20, 2013.

Rotavirus gastroenteritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 7, 2013. Accessed February 20, 2013.

Rotavirus vaccine access and delivery. PATH website. Available at: http://sites.path.org/rotavirusvaccine/. Accessed February 20, 2013.

Rotavirus Vaccine Live Oral. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 25, 2013. Accessed February 20, 2013.

12/14/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Leder K, Sinclair M, Forbes A, Wain D. Household clustering of gastroenteritis. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137(12):1705-1712.

4/28/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Sindhu KN, Sowmyanarayanan TV, et al. Immune response and intestinal permeability in children with acute gastroenteritis treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(8):1107-1115.



Last reviewed December 2013 by Kari Kassir, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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