The American Cancer Society (ACS) offers these general screening recommendations for healthy women. If you have certain risk factors or symptoms, work with your doctor, who can create a cancer screening schedule that is right for you. It is important to remember that people of any age can get cancer, but the risk for most cancers increases with age.
The following is advice from ACS on how to watch for common cancers in young and middle-aged women. Since screening tests and exams are the best way to catch cancer early, carefully check to make sure you are getting what you need.
The ACS recommends mammogram screenings for breast cancer. Mammograms use low-dose x-rays to make a picture of your breast tissue. The ACS recommends having a mammogram every year starting at age 40. You can continue to have this exam yearly if you are in good health. Due to family history, genetics, or other factors, some women may also want to have an MRI in addition to mammograms. Your doctor can help you decide if additional screening is recommended for you.
The ACS and many other health organizations recommend the following guidelines for cervical cancer screening:
Ovarian cancer is another common type of cancer affecting the female reproductive organs.
There are not currently effective tests for early detection of ovarian cancer. You should let your doctor know if you have any symptoms that may be caused by ovarian cancer such as bloating, abdominal or pelvic pain, feeling full early, or problems urinating. Remember that these symptoms may have other causes than ovarian cancer.
If you are at high risk for ovarian cancer, there are some screening tests that may be used, such as pelvic exams, transvaginal sonography (a type of ultrasound test) and CA-125 blood test (a protein that may be higher in women with ovarian cancer).
Endometrial cancer affects the inner lining of the uterus (called the endometrium).
ACS recommends that you talk to your doctor about the risks and symptoms of endometrial cancer, especially once you reach menopause (usually around the age of 50). If you have any symptoms, such as vaginal bleeding or spotting, pain in the pelvic area, or pain during urination or intercourse, tell your doctor right away. If you are at high risk for endometrial cancer, after age 35 you may need to have an endometrial biopsy every year.
During your routine physical exam, your doctor will check your skin. If you have any concerns about suspicious moles, talk to your doctor. Some symptoms to look for include changes in the shape, such as uneven shape or ragged edges, color, or texture of a mole. You can also check your skin once a month. Follow these tips for doing a skin self-exam:
Colorectal cancer affects the colon or the rectum, which are parts of the digestive system.
According to the ACS, you should begin screening at age 50. If you have certain risk factors for colorectal cancer, you may need having screening tests started when you are younger. Screening may involve one of the following tests:
While these recommendations are from the ACS, there are many other organizations that provide screening guidelines. The screening tests that your doctor recommends depend on a number of factors, like your age, personal and family medical history, risk factors, and symptoms. You can take an active role in your healthcare by talking to your doctor about the right screening tests for you.
BC Cancer Agency
Canadian Cancer Society
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Breast cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 29, 2015. Accessed February 3, 2016.
Cervical cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 3, 2015. Accessed February 3, 2016.
Colorectal cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 11, 2015. Accessed February 3, 2016.
Estimated new cancer cases and deaths by sex, US, 2014. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@research/documents/document/acspc-041780.pdf. Accessed February 3, 2016.
Friedman J. Cancer screening in premenopausal women. Family Practice Recertification. 2002;24:53-61.
Prevention Checklist for Women. American Cancer Society website. Available at http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@nho/documents/webcontent/cancerpreventionandearlydetect.pdf. Updated April 14, 2010. Accessed February 3, 2016.
Siegel R, Desantis C, et al. Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64(2):104-117.
Step by step self-exam. Skin Cancer website. Available at: http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/early-detection/step-by-step-self-examination. Accessed February 3, 2016.
Ovarian cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 19, 2015. Accessed February 3, 2016.
Vick T. Routine screening for cervical, breast and colorectal cancers. The Female Patient. 2002;27(suppl):20–24.
What are the key statistics about breast cancer? American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-key-statistics. Updated January 15, 2016. Accessed February 3, 2016.
3/19/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Saslow D, Soloman D, et al. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012. 62(3):147-172.
Last reviewed February 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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