Parents should be aware of what osteoporosis is and why it concerns their children. There are steps you can take while they are young to protect children from getting osteoporosis later in life.
Osteoporosis is a disease that gradually weakens bones until they break easily, sometimes after little or no injury. The bones most likely to be affected are the hip, spine, and wrist. Osteoporosis is often called a “silent disease” because there are usually no symptoms of the disease until a bone breaks. Everyone is susceptible to osteoporosis, but the following risk factors influence the chances of getting it:
Though it is impossible to modify most of these risk factors, some—particularly diet and exercise—are within your control.
Although osteoporosis is a disease that manifests in older adults, health professionals now suspect that its origins may occur in childhood. The peak years for bone formation are during adolescence—between ages 9-18—when more calcium is added to bone than is lost. For both boys and girls, most of this bone formation is complete by the age of 20. By getting enough calcium and weight-bearing activity in these critical years, it is thought that children can reduce their risk of developing osteoporosis later in life.
Since their bones are soaking up more calcium now than they ever will, kids and teens have especially high calcium needs. Unfortunately, kids today are, for the most part, not getting what they need. The following table outlines the recommendations by the Institute of Medicine for calcium intake in children:
(milligrams per day)
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that kids and teens eat a variety of calcium-rich foods. The table below lists some good calcium sources and the amount of calcium and calories that they contain:
|Low-fat yogurt, plain||1 cup||450||150|
|Tofu, prepared with calcium||½ cup||425||100|
|Skim milk||1 cup||350||100|
|Low-fat milk (1%)||1 cup||350||120|
|Reduced fat milk (2%)||1 cup||350||140|
|Whole milk||1 cup||300||150|
|Calcium-fortified orange juice||1 cup||350||110|
|Cheddar cheese||1 ounce||200||115|
|Ice cream||1 cup||100||150|
|Broccoli, cooked||1 cup||70||40|
|* Adapted from the US Department of Architecture Nutrient Database|
While most people know that calcium is essential for building strong, healthy bones, many are not aware that vitamin D is also critical for bone health. Vitamin D can be obtained from the diet—mainly from vitamin D-fortified dairy products. Also, when exposed to the sun, skin makes vitamin D.
The body can store vitamin D for weeks or months, so it is not necessary to consume it or be in the sun every day. However, many kids and teenagers today probably do not spend enough time outdoors to get their needed vitamin D intake. Also, sunscreens, which are vital for protecting the skin from the sun’s harmful rays, may reduce the skin’s ability to produce vitamin D. For these reasons, it is important for kids and teens to eat food fortified with vitamin D. Supplements are also available. For children older than 1 year and adolescents, the recommended daily dose is 600 International Units (IU).
The table below shows major food sources of vitamin D:
|Food||Serving Size||Vitamin D Content (IU)|
|Cod liver oil||1 Tsp.||450|
|Salmon (pink), canned||3 ounces||530|
|Tuna fish (light), canned in oil||3 ounces||201|
|Sardines, canned in oil||2 sardines||65|
|Milk (low fat), vitamin D-fortified||1 cup||127|
|Soy milk, calcium-fortified||1 cup||120|
|Swiss cheese||1 ounce||12|
|Egg yolk||1 large||18|
Doing weight-bearing physical activities helps to build stronger, healthier bones by forcing your bones to work against gravity. The stress triggers bones to build more cells and become stronger. If you help your children find weight-bearing activities that they find enjoyable, then they will be more likely to do them regularly.
Some weight-bearing activities for kids and teens are:
By learning bone-promoting behaviors during childhood, like eating right and staying active, not only will children build strong bones while they are young, but they will also adopt habits that will keep their bones strong and healthy as they age.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Institute of Child Health & Human Development
About Kids Health
Caring for Kids
Calcium. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/. Updated August 2011. Accessed May 21, 2012.
Calcium intake and supplementation. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 22, 2011. Accessed May 21, 2012.
Prevalence report. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/advocacy/resources/prevalencereport Accessed May 21, 2012.
Kleigman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 18th ed. Philadelphia PA: Saunders; 2007.
Vitamin D. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/. Updated August 2011. Accessed May 21, 2012.
Vitamin D intake and supplementation. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 24, 2012. Accessed May 21, 2012.
Last reviewed May 2012 by Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © 2012 EBSCO Publishing All rights reserved.
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