Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a rare eye condition. It occurs in infants who are premature or have low birthweight. ROP causes a problem in the retina, the tissue that lines the back of the eye. The blood vessels in the retina grow abnormally.
The abnormal blood vessels can lead to scarring of the retina. In the most serious cases, ROP can lead to a separation of the retina from the back of the eye. In a small number of cases, ROP may cause vision loss or blindness.
Normal Anatomy of the Eye
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Factors that increase the chance of an infant developing ROP include:
There are usually no signs of ROP until it reaches a severe stage. Severe ROP may cause:
A specialist will screen for ROP if your infant has risk factors such as prematurity and low birth weight. A special eye exam will be used to view the blood vessels in the retina.
The doctor will examine your infant’s eyes every 1-2 weeks until the blood vessels in the retina are fully developed.
Mild ROP will usually heal on its own. Your baby's eye will be examined regularly until the blood vessels heal.
More severe ROP may require treatment to reduce the risk of the retina detaching from the back of the eye. Treatment options include:
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
National Eye Institute
Canadian Ophthalmology Society
Canadian Pediatric Society
Fierson WM, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Ophthalmology, American Academy of Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Association of Certified Orthoptists. Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics. 2013;131(1):189-195.
Retinopathy of prematurity. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116187/Retinopathy-of-prematurity-ROP. Updated February 23, 2016. Accessed March 10, 2016.
Retinopathy of prematurity. National Eye Institute website. Available at: http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/rop. Accessed March 10, 2016.
Last reviewed March 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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