Pronounced: My-e-lo-dys-plas-tic syn-dromes
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of diseases that involve dysfunction of the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the tissue found within the bones; its task is to create mature blood cells from stem cells. In all forms of MDS, this normal cell-creation process is disrupted by the overproduction of clones of a single stem cell. This leads to a decrease in production of normal red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
The World Health Organization has classified MDS into eight categories. Some forms are more serious than others; all of them are serious enough to require a doctor’s care. Thirty percent of people with MDS develop acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells and their parent cells. As more is learned about MDS, experts began to see it as a form of cancer.
Location of Active Bone Marrow in an Adult
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The cause of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is unknown, but research shows that certain risk factors are associated with the disease.
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is more common in men and in those aged 60 years and older. Other factors that may increase your chance of MDS include:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The symptoms for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can indicate many other conditions. Doctors have to rule out other conditions before diagnosing MDS.
Tests may include the following:
Treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) depends on your age, other medical conditions, and how serious the disease is. Treatment also depends on how far along the disease has progressed to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Often, treatment includes relieving the symptoms of MDS. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. You may be referred to a hematologist and an oncologist. A hematologist specializes in blood diseases. An oncologist specializes in cancer. Treatment options include:
If you have a low red blood cell, white blood cell, or platelet count, you may receive a blood transfusion. A blood transfusion is a treatment that involves receiving blood products (red cells, white cells, platelets, clotting factors, plasma, or whole blood) through a vein. The blood components may come from an unrelated donor, from a related donor, or may have been banked in advance by the recipient.
If you have a low white blood cell count, you may receive antibiotics to fight infection.
Growth factors help the bone marrow produce blood cells. The following growth factors may be used to treat myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS):
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be given in many forms including: pill, injection, or via a catheter. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body killing mostly cancer cells, but also some healthy cells.
There are 3 combinations of chemotherapy drugs used to treat myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). These combinations include:
Hypomethylating agents are drugs that slow down the growth of cells, and include:
Immunomodulating drugs change the immune system, and include:
Immunosuppression agents suppress the immune system, and include:
The only cure for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a stem cell transplant (SCT). An SCT starts with high-dose chemotherapy to kill the bone marrow, and is then followed by an injection of healthy stem cells. The stem cells used can come from the blood or bone marrow.
There are 2 types of SCT. The less common one is called an autologous SCT, and occurs when the patient is injected with her own cells after high-dose chemotherapy. The more common method is called allogeneic and occurs when a patient gets donor cells after high-dose chemotherapy.
Many doctors will only perform an SCT on a patient that is aged 50 years old or younger.
To help reduce your chance of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS):
Leukemia &Lymphoma Society
Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation
Aplastic Anemia & Myelodysplasia Association of Canada
Neutropenia Support Association
Ableoff M, ed. Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2005.
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Frequently asked questions about MDS page. The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation website. Available at: http://www.mds-foundation.org/pdf/CEL411%20Factsht%20v8.pdf. Accessed December 12, 2014.
General information about myelodysplastic syndromes treatment. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/myeloproliferative/patient/myelodysplastic-treatment-pdq. Accessed December 12, 2014.
Goldman L, ed. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company; 2004.
Hoffman R, Benz E, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2005.
Myelodysplastic syndrome. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003122-pdf.pdf. Accessed December 12, 2014.
Myelodysplastic syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 7, 2014. Accessed December 12, 2014.
Myelodysplastic syndromes. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003122-pdf.pdf. Accessed December 12, 2014.
Understanding myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation website. Available at: http://www.mds-foundation.org/what-is-mds. Accessed December 12, 2014.
Last reviewed December 2015 by Mohei Abouzied, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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